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Network Essentials  

A Network is a group of systems that are connected to allow sharing of resources such as files or sharing of services like internet connection. There are two types of setting up a network the hardware used to connect the system together and the software installed on the computer to allow them to communicate. Networks may be classified into a wide variety of characteristics the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, benefit, and organizational scope.

Network categorizes in to different types of networks such as Topology, Protocol, and Architecture :

1. Topology: The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include     a bus, star, and ring.

2. Protocol: The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the     network use to communicate.

3. Architecture: Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or     client/server architecture.

Basic hardware components in Network are

1. Network interface cards

2. Repeaters and hubs

3. Bridges

4. Switches

5. Routers

6. Firewalls


Basic Connectivity Component

1.Network Adapters: Receive data and convert it into electrical Signals and control the flow     of data through the cable.

2.Network Cables: Twisted-Pair, Coaxial and Fiber-Optic Cables used for connection.

3.Wireless Communication Devices: Infrared Transmission and Narrowband Radio    Transmission for communication.


Some types of Network

Local-area networks (LANs): The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building).

Wide-area networks (WANs): The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.

Campus-area networks (CANs): The computers are within a limited geographic area, such as a campus or military base.

Metropolitan-area networks MANs): A data network designed for a town or city.

Home-area networks (HANs): A network contained within a user's home that connects a person's digital devices.

Backbone network: A backbone network is part of a computer network infrastructure that interconnects various pieces of network, providing a path for the exchange of information between different LANs or sub networks.

Virtual private network (VPN): is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network.

Storage area network (SAN): is a dedicated network that provides access to consolidated, block level data storage.


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